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Columbus Instruments CLAMS 小動物連續代謝監測系統

產品型號:
廠牌名稱:
Columbus Instruments 推出的實驗動物綜合參數監測系統 (CLAMS) 為同時記錄多隻動物綜合參數的方式定下了新的標準,推出十數年來已累積了數千篇的參考文獻,其歷久不衰的特色為準確的測量動物的飲食飲水以及快速且準確的測量代謝參數。新推出的CLAMS-HC (home cage) 系統結合了代謝籠與一般飼育籠的特色,有別於傳統代謝實驗動物需要居住在特殊且無墊料的環境,CLAMS-HC系統以傳統飼育籠作為基礎,提供了動物一個有墊料且幾乎與一般飼育籠無異的生活環境,讓您得到最不受環境壓力影響的代謝數據。

產品特點

特色:
Oxymax代謝測量系統 –
Columbus Instruments所推出的Oxymax為現今最廣泛使用的間接代謝測量系統,其原理為透過計算時間點內的氧氣/二氧化碳變化來得知籠內動物的代謝情形,一般動物會透過消耗氧氣進行代謝並產生二氧化碳,因此可以透過氣體變化來算出各類代謝參數。

飲食與飲水 –
有別於傳統代謝測量系統需使用特殊的水瓶與飼料盒,CLAMS-HC使用的水瓶與飼料盒幾乎與一般無限制上蓋供食/供水的飼育籠一樣,動物不需學習即可自由取得所需要的水與飼料。
 
居住環境 –
CLAMS-HC (home cage)系統與一般代謝測量系統最大的不同,在於CLAMS-HC使用一般市面上常見的的盒型飼育籠,可以於籠內使用墊料。和一般無法使用墊料的專門代謝測量系相比,CLAMS-HC能帶給動物最少的壓力,既符合人道原則,也讓您的實驗結果更精準!

實驗環境控制箱 –
CLAMS-HC 系統搭配了實驗環境控制箱,可以讓你在溫度/光線受控制的情形下進行實驗,溫度與光線亮度/顏色皆可透過電腦排程控制,因此可以進行極端溫度實驗或是高溫差實驗,溫度控制範圍為攝氏5-40度,箱內任意區域溫差不超過0.25度,您無需擔心箱內溫度不均造成的實驗結果失準。
實驗環境控制箱同時具備了隔音效果,讓您的實驗不會被外在因素干擾。
 
 
Large Animal VO2/VCO2: Oxymax XL

 

 

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Oxymax-XL is a special version of the Oxymax Deluxe System that has been configured for use with large subjects. Oxymax-XL supports air supply flows from 1000 to 15,000 LPM, making it useful for animals ranging in size from large pigs to horses. Oxymax-XL supports one channel and can be configured for either positive or negative ventilation conditions. Unique to Oxymax-XL is its rapid response. Modifications allow operation at recording rates that make near real-time monitoring possible for subjects undergoing exercise testing.
Oxymax-XL systems are custom designed to suit the specific needs of large animal calorimetric research. Masks or chambers are supported. The system has extensive pneumatic filtering to keep debris from fouling the flow measuring devices. All flow meters employed in Oxymax-XL are NIST certified.

In addition to the standard monitoring of O2 and CO2, Oxymax-XL can be equipped with an optional methane (CH4) sensor for making accurate calorimetric assessments on ruminant subjects. Oxymax-XL may also be outfitted with special sensors unique to the intended application.

New Universal Air Dryer
Extends the life of your chemical drying agent and prevents the exchange of CO2 between sample and dessicant for more stable RERs.

Equations for Energy Expenditure

 

Features / Specifications

Large animal capability
Supports mask or chamber environments
Auto-Tracking and correction of errors caused by changes in the testing environment
Simple operation with Experiment Checklist documents proper set-up and execution
User-definable inputs and user-defined parameters

Consult Columbus Instruments for Specifications of this Custom Product

 

 

 

 

Oxymax-H is Columbus Instruments’ non-clinical metabolic monitoring system. The instrument employs the same analytical grade gas sensors employed in the entire Oxymax line. Measurements are made by affixing a mask or canopy to the subject through which a continuous flow of air is drawn. The rate is selected so as to collect all expired gases from the subject. The flow is accurately metered by a precise controller that measures the exact mass of air being transported. A small sample is drawn from the effluent flow, dried, and presented to an electrochemical Oxygen sensor (paramagnetic and zirconia sensors also available) and a single beam non-dispersive Carbon Dioxide sensor. The resulting values are processed by the Oxymax H controlling software for presentation of Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory exchange ratio, and heat.


Oxymax H may also be employed in situations where the use of a mask may not be suitable; it works equally well with a tent or canopy.

Equations for Energy Expenditure

 

Features / Specifications



Oxygen Sensor Range: 19.0% to 21.25%

Oxygen Sensor Accuracy: 1% of reading, �1 digit

Carbon Dioxide Sensor Range: 0% to 1.0%

Carbon Dioxide Sensor Accuracy: 1% of reading, � 1 digit

Flow Meter Range: 45-450 Liters per Minute

Flow Meter Accuracy: 1% of reading, � 1 digit
 
 
Oxymax Lab Animal Monitoring System: CLAMS

 

 

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Columbus Instruments Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System CLAMS is the premiere system of its kind. Incorporating sub-systems for open circuit calorimetry, activity, body mass, feeding, drinking, food access control, running wheel, urine collection, sleep detection, body core temperature and heart rate in an optional environmental chamber: Oxymax/CLAMS is the one-test solution for simultaneous multi parameter assessment of 1 to 32 test animals.

Oxymax/CLAMS is constructed on a semi-custom basis incorporating parameters and features specific to your research. Any system can be expanded by way of more chambers and/or features at any time.

Operation of Oxymax/CLAMS and data collection is performed by an integrated program. The resulting secure data sets can be exported to Comma Separated Value (CSV) files and provide the link between Oxymax/CLAMS and your existing data analysis tools. Additional data reduction tools allow for the de-collating of data by parameter to facilitate analysis from a parameter perspective. All data can be reviewed graphically & numerically in real-time during collection.

Oxymax/CLAMS provides fully automated operation for experiments lasting up to three days.
Food and water may be replenished during experiment execution without the need for system restart.

CLAMS Brochure


Equations for Energy Expenditure


OxyVal Oxymax Validation Unit

 

 

Features / Specifications

 
Oxymax Calorimetric Assessment - Columbus Instruments Oxymax system is the leading open circuit indirect calorimeter for lab animal research. Heat is derived by assessment of the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide that occurs during the metabolic process. The relationship between the volume of gas consumed (oxygen) and of that produced (carbon dioxide) reveals the energy content of the foodstuff utilized by the subject. This alorific value� is then applied to the volume of gases exchanged to compute heat.
Oxymax Sensor Technologies:
Paramagnetic O2 Sensor - Included as standard, measurement range is 0-100% with a response time of 90 seconds per cage.
Zirconia O2 Sensor - Part of the igh Speed Sensing Option�, measurement range is 0-100% and when coupled with our dual tube High Speed Gas Dryer, response time is 50 seconds per cage. Multiple High Speed Sensor sets can be connected to the system to allow 2 or more cages to be measured simultaneously.
Food Intake Monitoring - Oxymax/CLAMS monitors the cumulative amount of food eaten as well as the amount eaten in each bout with the use of a Mettler Toledo balance with a resolution of 0.01g. Feeders are designed to account for spillage of food and to prevent foraging, a combination which provides the most accurate food intake monitor on the market.
Food Access Control - Access to food can be placed under automatic computerized control. A pneumatic driven shield prevents access to the food, and can be controlled by times intervals and/or by mass of food. Additionally, this option also includes paradigms for Yolked or Paired feeding.
 
CLAMS Cages
Standard Cages: The basic animal cage providing a sealed environment suitable for measuring Oxygen consumption and Carbon Dioxide production.
Center Feeder Cages: The Center Feeder Cage maintains the same sealed environment but adds a feeder to the center of the cage to allow food intake measurements. The Center Feeder is the most popular and universal in application, supporting all subject body types from lean to obese. An adjustable food guard allows mechanical fine tuning of food access to minimize foraging.
End Feeder Cages: The End Feeder Cage maintains the same sealed environment but adds an external feeder to the side of the cage to allow food intake measurements. The End Feeder provides more floor space for active subjects. Not suitable for Obese animal models. Not compatible with Y axis activity monitoring.
Corner Feeder Cages: The Corner Feeder Cage maintains the same sealed environment but adds an external feeder to the corner of the cage to allow food intake measurements and placement of a Y axis activity sensor. The End Feeder provides more floor space for active subjects. Not suitable for Obese animal models.
Over Head Feeder Cages: The Over Head Feeder is an adaptation of our popular center feeder that places the food in a location more familiar to the subjects. It does not account for spillage or foraging.
Double Feeder Cages: The Double Feeder Cage supports two feeders with food intake monitoring for diet preference experiments. Shown with optional activity sensors.
 
Drinking Volume - Volume monitoring is implemented with Columbus Instruments patented (Pat: #6,463,879) Volumetric Drinking Monitor [VDM] system. In this design, what appears outwardly to be a standard sipper tube is presented to the animal. Internal to the tube is a second, electrically isolated, water delivery tube.
Drinking Licks - Lick detection is implemented on the standard conductivity principle where a small, imperceptible current passes through the animal from the sipper tube to a conductive floor. Each contact with the sipper tube accrues one count. Oxymax/CLAMS tabulates this figure for each measurement interval.
 
Animal Activity - Oxymax/CLAMS may be configured with single, dual or triple axis detection of animal motion using IR photocell technology. Interruption of an IR beam will accrue one ount�. Coverage in a single plane may be implemented with IR photocells located in the X or XY direction. The height of these beams is such that they intersect the animal midway vertically. Placement of IR photocells at a height above the animal detect rearing or jumping (Z-axis). Systems may be configured for X, XY, XZ or XYZ coverage.
Sleeping Bouts - The photocell activity monitor can now be employed in the detection of sleeping bouts. The criteria used is the length of time with no (or minimum) movement. The user has control over the length of the epoch, and amount of movement that qualifies the epoch as asleep or awake.
 
Telemetry - Oxymax/CLAMS supports the monitoring of body core temperature and heart rate by way of an implanted transmitter. Suitable for both rats and mice, the transmitters require no internal power source. An external field is generated by an antenna system that, momentarily, charges the transmitter.
 
Urine Collection - Urine collection is facilitated by custom chambers that incorporate a series of sub floors. The animal walks on a perforated floor that allows for the passage of urine and feces. A second, sub floor, is fabricated as a carefully woven non-wetting surface that allows for the passage of urine while retaining feces. Urine passing through the second floor is collected by a paraffin wax coated funnel. The urine retained in a suitable glass holder. Oxymax/ CLAMS allows for the removal of the holder while the experiment is in progress.
* Not compatible with Center Feeders (and therefore, Obese models), Telemetry, or Running Wheels.
Urine Mass - In addition to collection, Oxymax/CLAMS can be equipped with the ability to monitor the mass of urine collected. In this configuration, the glass urine holder is placed on an electronic balance. Oxymax/CLAMS reads the balance and reports changes related to increased urine mass.
Urine Freezing - Oxymax/CLAMS provides chilling/freezing urine as an alternative to monitoring. In this configuration, the glass urine holder is held at a low temperature, typically +5 to -5蚓. The design of the holder allows the removal of the urine holder while the experiment is in progress. This allows for analysis of the collected urine without disturbing the animal or the experiment.
 
Respiration Frequency - Using an ultra sensitive pressure transducer, changes in pressure produced by a subject respiring within the enclosed space produces cyclic variations of the pressure signal over time to reveal respiration frequency (breaths per minute).
 
Running Wheels - Oxymax/CLAMS can be equipped with running wheels with rotation monitoring. Running wheels for mice are sized such that they fit within the standard mouse chamber. Rat running wheels are too large for placement within the animal chamber. These wheels are appended to the end of the rat chamber. A hole between the two compartments allows animal passage.
Treadmills - The Modular Treadmill provides an air-tight enclosure around a motor driven belt to allow VO2/VCO2 measures during exercise. An electric stimulus at the rear of the belt keeps the animals running for the duration of the test.
 
Body Mass - Oxymax/CLAMS can be equipped with the ability to periodically monitor body mass. In this configuration, the animal is provided with an appealing cubby-hole fabricated from a translucent tube. The diminished lighting within the tube offers an environment conducive to nesting. The cubby-hole is supported by a mechanism affixed to an electronic balance.
 
Environmental Enclosure - The environmental enclosure allows precise control over the temperature and light / dark cycle. Temperature range is 2蚓 - 50蚓 within +/- 1蚓.
 
Data Collection Software - The Oxymax/CLAMS Software controls all subsystems and integrates the data into CSV format for easy evaluation and real time presentation. The primary data file separates each measure into epochs defined by the response time of Calorimetric readings. Activity and Feeding have secondary data files with higher resolution. The secondary activity file allows higher temporal resolution with shorter bin times; user selectable, typically between 10-30 second intervals. The secondary Feeding file is event driven, and records the time and mass of each feeding bout.
CLAX Statistical Software - Oxymax/CLAMS can generate copious amounts of data. The CLAMS data eXamination Tool (CLAX) assists in the analysis of this data by presenting it in a meaningful fashion. CLAX allows for organizing animals within an experiment into treatment groups and provides tools for data trimming to remove information collected during animal acclimation. Data samples can also be sub-grouped into data collected during light or dark periods. The resulting trimmed and re-organized data may then be subjected to further analysis by CLAX.

 

OxyVal
 

 

 

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The OxyVal is an eight-channel gas infuser intended for use as a validation instrument for open circuit calorimeter systems manufactured by Columbus Instruments. The infusion gas is intended to be high purity,100% nitrogen or a primary standard grade mix of 20% carbon dioxide, balance nitrogen. From one to eight cages can be tested at a time using the Columbus Instruments Oxymax software to acquire the gas concentration data.

The gas infusion validation technique relies on mixing highly accurate gas mixtures at known flow rates with ambient air supplied by the calorimeter. For the nitrogen infusion case, the resulting cage gas concentrations will have a reduced oxygen concentration with respect to ambient and a largely unchanged carbon dioxide concentration. For the carbon dioxide mixture case, the oxygen concentration will be reduced and the carbon dioxide concentration will increase yielding validation data for both parameters. Either case will validate the source air input flow accuracy and the leak status of the channel. The carbon dioxide infusion test clearly yields a better validation but at the cost of more expensive and sometimes difficult to acquire primary standard gas mixture.

 

Features / Specifications



Validates VO2, VCO2, DO2, DCO2, and RER
8 channel gas infusion
Adjustable gas infusion flow rate
Active Channel indicators
Calculation spreadsheet tool included.

 

 

VO2/VCO2: Oxymax Economy

 

 

The Columbus Instruments Oxymax Eco System is an indirect open circuit calorimeter designed to measure the metabolic performance of a single subject. The system monitors oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations by volume at the inlet and outlet ports of a chamber, canopy, tent, or mask through which a known flow of air is being forcibly ventilated. The difference in gas concentrations along with flow information is employed to calculate oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory exchange ratio and heat. All data provided by the Oxymax Eco is corrected to an STP of 0° and 760 mmHg. The system presents data in normalized forms that are user-defined.
The Oxymax Eco can be configured for positive or negative ventilation of a single subject. Flows between 100 mL/Min and 15,000 LPM are supported. The instrument supports all of the facilities of the Oxymax Equal Flow System with the limitation of working with only a single subject. The Oxymax Eco can be upgraded to support multiple subjects and provides a low cost entry into calorimetric measurements while providing the possibility of adding features to meet increasing demand.

Click here to obtain a copy [PDF] of the product brochure.

Equations for Energy Expenditure


OxyVal Oxymax Validation Unit

 

Features / Specifications

Lowest cost open circuit calorimeter
Employs analytical grade gas sensors
Computer control and data collection
Economical System for Single Subject

Oxygen Sensor:
Electrochemical:
Range: 18.9% to 21.2% Resolution: 0.002% O2
Drift: less than 0.25% O2 / 24 Hours
Paramagnetic:
Range:0-100% Resolution: 0.002% of specified range
Drift: less than 0.06% of specified range per 24 Hours
Carbon Dioxide Sensor:
Range: 0%-0.8% Resolution: 0.002% CO2
Drift: (zero) less than 20 ppm CO2 / Hour
Drift: (span) less than 20 ppm CO2 / Hour.

 

 

VO2/VCO2: Oxymax Equal Flow

 

 

The Columbus Instruments Oxymax Equal Flow System is an indirect open circuit calorimeter designed to simultaneously measure metabolic performance of multiple subjects that have similar ventilation needs. The system monitors oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations by volume at the inlet and outlet ports of a chamber, canopy, tent, or mask through which a known flow of air is being forcibly ventilated. The difference in gas concentrations along with flow information is employed to calculate oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory exchange ratio and heat. All data provided by the Oxymax Equal Flow is corrected to an STP of 0蚓 and 760 mmHg. The system presents data in normalized forms that are user-defined.

The Oxymax Equal Flow is configured for positive ventilation of multiple subjects. The total flow of a single source of air is accurately monitored before entering the equal flow distribution system. Within the equal flow distribution system is a manifold designed to distribute the incoming flow equally among all attached chambers. Up to 32 chambers are supported. A second flow meter within the instrument provides a secondary method of assuring that the total flow is properly distributed. The Oxymax Equal Flow can be supplied with positive ventilation systems that deliver 100 mL/Min to 10 LPM per subject. Consult Columbus Instruments with the specific details of your application.

The Oxymax Equal Flow is constructed with stable gas sensors that have been optimized for sensing concentrations near ambient conditions. A typical Oxymax Equal Flow measurement is accurately made from readings that differ by as little as 0.1% from inlet to outlet. The Oxymax Equal Flow employs methods and control systems that assure accurate and repeatable results under changing environmental conditions. The controlling software has been designed to provide ease of use with powerful abilities that enable the Oxymax Equal Flow to adapt to your specific calorimetric measurement needs. The Oxymax Equal Flow hardware allows connection to virtually any additional testing equipment and logs their measured values into the Oxymax Equal Flow data file.

Click here to obtain a copy [PDF] of the product brochure.

Equations for Energy Expenditure


OxyVal Oxymax Validation Unit

 

Features / Specifications

Simple operation with Experiment Checklist documents proper set-up and execution
Auto-Tracking and Correction of errors caused by changes in the testing environment
Supports 2 to 32 subjects of similar size
Adaptable to a wide range of subject size and testing

Oxygen Sensor:
Electrochemical:
Range: 18.9% to 21.2% Resolution: 0.002% O2
Drift: less than 0.25% O2 / 24 Hours
Paramagnetic:
Range:0-100% Resolution: 0.002% of specified range
Drift: less than 0.06% of specified range per 24 Hours
Carbon Dioxide Sensor:
Range: 0%-0.8% Resolution: 0.002% CO2
Drift: (zero) less than 20 ppm CO2 / Hour
Drift: (span) less than 20 ppm CO2 / Hour

產品規格

Oxymax Calorimetric Assessment

Columbus Instruments Oxymax system is the leading open circuit indirect calorimeter for lab animal research. Heat is derived by assessment of the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide that occurs during the metabolic process. The relationship between the volume of gas consumed (oxygen) and of that produced (carbon dioxide) reveals the energy content of the foodstuff utilized by the subject. This 'calorific value' is then applied to the volume of gases exchanged to compute heat.
Oxymax Sensor Technologies:
  • Mass flow measurement
  • Paramagnetic or Zirconia Oxide O2 sensing
  • Push or Pull ventilation
  • Single of Multiple gas sensors
As an indirect calorimeter, Oxymax relies on accurate measurements of gas concentrations and flow. Flow is measured by a mass thermal transfer technique that yields data formatted in terms normalized to scientific STP (760 mmHg and 0° Centigrade). It is the measurement of mass, not volume, that allows Oxymax to be employed under various atmospheric conditions without the need to account for environmental pressure or temperature.

The measurement of oxygen may be performed by these technologies supported by Oxymax:
Paramagnetic O2 Sensor - [standard speed] Provides full 0-100% range
Zirconia O2 Sensor - [high speed] Provides full 0-100% range and high speed response

Carbon Dioxide - is sensed by single beam non-dispersive IR (NDIR).

The combination of the Zirconia Oxide based oxygen sensor and high speed single beam NDIR carbon dioxide sensing provides a chamber measurement in 20 seconds. Standard sensors provide a measurement in two minutes.

Removal of water vapor is accomplished by the employment of materials with hydroscopic properties that isolate the sample gas from the drying media. This prevents the sample gas composition from being altered by interaction with the drying media as well as providing a reduced volume within the drying pathway. The reduced volume of the drying pathway improves response time and provides very high accuracy measurements of sample gas composition.
Oxymax Experiment Runtime Graph of VO2

Oxymax Experiment Runtime Graph of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER)

Oxymax Experiment Graph of RER & Feeding


Oxymax supports both push and pull flow methodologies. Systems may be configured with single or multiple gas sensors. Systems equipped with a single set of gas sensors sequentially scan the chambers with a pneumatic multiplexer. These systems have a dwell time of 45 seconds to 2 minutes before advancing to the next chamber. Higher data through-put is accomplished with an increasing number of gas sensors. Optimal performance is achieved with one set of gas sensors assigned to each animal chamber. In such case, data may be recorded at intervals as short as 10 seconds with all chambers operating in parallel.

Activity Monitoring

Multiple Axis Measurement
CLAMS-HC may be configured with single, dual or triple axis detection of animal motion using IR photocell technology. Interruption of a IR beam will accrue one "count" as well as identifying animal position within the respective axis . Coverage in a single plane may be implemented with IR photocells located in the X or XY direction. The height of these beams is such that they intersect the animal midway vertically. Placement of IR photocells at a height above the animal detect rearing or jumping (Z-axis).

Activity Scoring
CLAMS-HC employs Columbus Instruments Opto-M4 or Opto-M5 Activity Monitor and patented (Pat: #4,337,726) process for the tabulation of activity counts associated with ambulation. The method scores counts as ambulation when the animal traverses the cage, breaking a series of IR beams in sequence. Repeated interruptions of the same IR beam do not incur ambulatory counts. All beam interruptions are scored as Total Activity. Subtraction of Ambulatory counts from the Total count provides counts associated with Stereotopy (grooming, scratching, etc.). Multiple axes serve to provide coordinate data that is employed to assess position and distance traveled.

Activity data is tabulated at two intervals by CLAMS-HC. The first interval is concurrent with the period over which calorimetric measurements are performed. This interval can be lengthy as it is dependent on the number of chambers in a CLAMS-HC configuration and the gas sensors employed. A secondary, shorter, interval provides very high temporally resolved animal activity data. Typical bin times for this process are in the range of 10-30 seconds. High resolution actigrams can be generated from this secondary activity data set.

CLAMS-HC Runtime Activity Screen

Tecniplast model 1264 cage with X Y & Z Axis IR Photocells


 

Food and Water Consumption

Feeders & Drinkers
Most vivariums house animals in a cage that affords ad libitum access to food suspended in a wire mesh lid. Water is offered by either a simple water bottle or circulating watering system with rocker-type valves. The need to provide a similar method of presentation is preserved in CLAMS-HC.

The animal feeder provides access to food through a grated access plate that simulates the wire lid assemblies found on standard caging. The need to provide diets of differing composition, while minimizing foraging and droppings, is made possible by a series of user replaced screens. These screens are sized to allow food of various compositions from standard lab chow to high-fat diets. Screens are available for powdered foods on a semi-custom basis.

Beneath the feeder is a catch basin that serves to minimize food droppings from falling into the animal cage bedding. The catch basin is integral to the suspended feeder and food caught in the catch basin remains on the suspended element and is not scored as food consumed. Food falling into the catch basin remains available to the animal.

Feeders have sufficient capacity to hold food for a week of unattended delivery. Suspended feeders are low cost and additional feeders can be made at the ready for rapid turn- around between experiment runs. Feeders and sipper tubes are manufactured of stainless steel and can be sanitized by any convenient method.

CLAMS-HC employs standard water bottles with sipper tubes equipped with two ball bearings to assure a drip-free seal. The water bottle as a volume of ~120ml. Other water bottles are supported and it is likely that Columbus Instruments can adapt to your preferred water bottle.

The height of CLAMS-HC feeders and drinkers are user positioned to accommodate animals of varying size. A simple clamp need only be loosened and then re-secured to hold the feeder or drinker at the required height.

Diet Composition
All CLAMS-HC feeders can accommodate the wide range of diets employed in today's research. High fat diets are made available to the animal with the same ease as extruded, granular or most powdered food stock. Many liquid diets can be made available to the animal by water bottle and monitored by CLAMS-HC. Consult Columbus Instruments with special dietary requirements.

Mass Measurement
CLAMS-HC monitors the removal of food and water with a mass resolution of 0.01g. CLAMS-HC employs custom manufactured load cells that are fully temperature compensated to assure stable and reliable operation when operated within an environment with rapid changes in temperature like those applicable to cold challenging an animal. The load cells are also overload protected to assure robust performance.


CLAMS-HC Drinker & Feeder


Bout Detection and Scoring
CLAMS-HC continuously monitors for disturbance of drinkers and feeders caused by animal contact. At the moment of disturbance detection, CLAMS-HC makes an initial, but unconfirmed, entry into a log file to identify the start of a potential feeding or drinking bout. The most recent valid mass reading from the load cell is then recorded. Some time later, the load cell will return to a stable state indicating that the animal has backed away from the drinker or feeder. The moment of restoration of stability is entered into the log file along with current mass reading. CLAMS-HC then compares the difference in the two mass readings to detect liquid or food removal. An indicated loss of mass exceeding a user set threshold, typically -0.01g or -0.02g, validates the bout and the entry remains in the log file. A mass difference not meeting the threshold requirement causes the removal of the entry from the log file and no bout is scored. In this manner, CLAMS-HC provides a full list of validated episodic feeding and drinking activity. During analysis, operators may group episodic bouts into meals by evaluating inter-bout periods. Inter-bout periods shorter than a user-specified time may be chained together to form a meal.

Automated Access to Food and Water

Multiple Drinkers and Feeders
CLAMS supports monitoring multiple drinkers or feeders in a common environment. Such capability might be employed for food preference evaluation. Additionally, allowing or denying access to an assortment of diets of varied composition is valuable in assessing the performance of compounds that alter an animal's ability to utilize certain food substrates.

Access Control
CLAMS-HC can be equipped with the ability to deny feeder and drinker access by way of a rotating barrier. The barrier mechanism may be operated either manually or automatically by way of a computer controlled actuator. When computer controlled, the barrier is actuated by a pre-set time schedule or by way of a consumption threshold based on mass in accordance with a user specified restriction protocol.

Access Control by Time
Figure 1 is a plot depicting the most basic form of CLAMS-HC feeder access Control. In this example, access to the feeder is granted/denied in a 12 hour period. Access is granted for the first 6 hours and denied in the second 6 hours. The period repeats for the duration of the experiment. The example shows an animal that consumed a total 1.9g of food during period one and a an accumulated total of 7.2g at the conclusion of the second period.

Access Control by Mass
Figure 2 is a plot depicting CLAMS-HC ability to restrict feeder access based on a running tabulation of food consumed. In this example, access to the feeder is granted at the start of the experiment. In the course of ~20 hours, the animal had four feeding episodes. During feeding episode four, access was denied following the crossing of an 8 gram mass limit imposed by the operator. Access was denied for the remainder of the experiment. CLAMS-HC supports the ability to resume feeder access following a user imposed latency.

Access Control by Time & Mass
Food hopper access can be controlled by a combination of the above basic control schemes leads to complex protocols for implementation in a controlled feeding regiment. In the case of the scenario in Figure 3, the operator has imposed a 12 hour period (6 hours granted & 6 hours denied) as well as placing a 4 gram consumption limit on the animal. During the 12-18 hour access period the animal exceeded the 4 gram consumption limit well in advance of the onset of access denial. The result is a total of 5.9 grams of food consumed in 24 hours.

Yoked/Paired Feeding Paradigms
CLAMS-HC supports operator configurations of the drinker and feeder Access Control mechanism that allow complex yoked/paired feeding paradigms. The consumption activity pattern of one animal may be imposed on others for the purpose of caloric intake matching by employing the unique of Access Control configuration screen in CLAMS-HC.

CLAMS-HC Feeder with Access Control Open & Closed


CLAMS-HC Drinker with Access Control Open & Closed


Figure 1
Figure 2

Figure 3



CLAMS-HC TelemetryCLAMS-HC supports the monitoring of body core temperature and heart rate by way of an implanted transmitter. The transmitters are suitable for implantation in mice.

Transmitter physical specifications:
Temperature: 15.5 x 6.5 mm , 1.1 grams
Temperature and Heart Rate: 26 x 6.5mm , 1.5 grams

CLAMS-HC transmitters do not require an internal power source. An external field is generated by an antenna system that, momentarily, charges the transmitter. The transmitter remains powered for a brief period. While powered, the transmitter conveys data back to the antenna and to CLAMS-HC. Following transmission, the transmitter goes dormant while it awaits another charge/transmit cycle. This process occurs once every four seconds in CLAMS-HC.

Temperature Transmitter

Temperature and Heart Rate Transmitter



Body Mass Monitoring

CLAMS-HC can be equipped with the ability to intermittently monitor body mass. This option is implemented using the same high quality load cell employed for food and liquid mass monitoring. In this configuration, the animal is provided with an appealing cubby-hole fabricated from a translucent tube. The diminished lighting within the tube offers an environment conducive to nesting. The cubby-hole is supported by a mechanism affixed to the load cell. CLAMS-HC monitors the animal's entry into the cubby-hole and, once settled, the animal's mass is recorded.

Due to the "animal-driven" nature of this measurement method, body mass measurements can not be performed on a fixed schedule.

Body mass cubby



CLAMS-HC with Running Wheel



CLAMS-HC can be equipped with running wheels with rotation monitoring. Running wheels are sized to fit within most standard mouse chambers. CLAMS-HC running wheels measure 94mm diameter (inside diameter) by 35mm wide. A magnet located at the perimeter of the wheel provides a field that is sensed as it passes a detector that, in turn, conveys rotation information to CLAMS-HC.

Running wheels are equipped with a mechanical brake that can be actuated manually or, optionally, by the CLAMS-HC program in accordance with a user specified protocol.

Temperature and Lighting Control

Temperature Control
CLAMS-HC systems can be fabricated within a temperature and light controlled enclosure. The temperature within the enclosure may be set within the range of 5° to 40° Centigrade.

Temperature control is implemented by way of either a simple, single set-point thermostat or by way of a programmable "ramp and soak" controller that allows complex temperature profiles to be programmed and called up for repeated use. Temperature uniformity within the enclosure is better than +/-0.25° Centigrade. The enclosure is equipped with upper and lower temperature limits that, if exceeded, shut down the device to prevent endangering the animals.

Lighting Control
Lighting control is implemented by way of a simple timer that is user programmable. Lighting is presented with control of both color temperature and level of illumination.

The enclosure is equipped with one, two or three glass panel doors that include light-tight coverings that can be placed over the glass to assure that no ambient light enters the enclosure.

Acoustic Isolation
CLAMS-HC systems equipped with a temperature and light controlled enclosure also benefit from an appreciable level of acoustic suppression of ambient sound.

Environmental Enclosure (ENC52) with 12 Stations



Sleep Detection and Analysis

Sleep Detection
Sleep Detection is a native function of CLAMS-HC program. In application, the operator specifies a set of criteria based on animal activity and time that establishes a threshold below which causes the triggering of the onset of a sleep event. Activity is sensed by the traditional IR beam method. Beam interruptions are scored as "counts". A high count indicates an active subject whereas a low count is indication of a sedentary animal. A count of zero for a prolonged period indicates that the animal is motionless within the spatial resolution of the IR beam monitor. CLAMS-HC Sleep Detection function works in time slices called "epochs". The operator configures the sleep detection algorithm by describing the number of consecutive epochs during which the activity counts are equal to or less than a user defined threshold. CLAMS-HC then flags the episode and tallies the sleep events over a user specified Analysis Window. Continued activity below the threshold infers a continuous sleeping bout.
Sleep Analysis Screen Shot
Sleep Analysis
Sleep Analysis may be performed on single or user grouped animal data. Data tabulated within the user specified Analysis Window is sub-divided into any occurring light and dark sessions. The resulting data from the analysis includes:

  • Number of Sleep Bouts
  • Average Sleep Bout Length in Epochs & Time formats
  • Minimum Sleep Bout Length in Epochs & Time formats
  • Maximum Sleep Bout Length in Epochs & Time formats
  • Total Sleep Time in Epochs & Time formats
  • Percent Time Sleeping within the Analysis Window

Once tabulated, the resulting analysis report may be exported from CLAMS-HC into a CSV (comma separated value) file for additional manipulation by other programs or for presentation.



CLAX data analysis

CLAMS data eXamination Tool
CLAMS-HC can generate copious amounts of data. The CLAMS data eXamination Tool (CLAX) assists in the analysis of this data by presenting it in a meaningful fashion. CLAX allows for organizing animals within an experiment into treatment groups and provides tools for data trimming to remove information collected during animal acclimation. Data samples can also be sub-grouped into data collected during light or dark periods. The resulting trimmed and re-organized data may then be subjected to further analysis by CLAX or other programs.

Data Analysis
CLAX allows for the simultaneous analysis of files from several experiments. It's simple to compare experiment results from several dozens of subjects. CLAX can open and analyze files from CLAMS or CLAMS-HC acquisition software version 3.03 or greater.

Graphical Analysis
Visual representation of data in a graphical format can often reveal underlying patterns or relationships that are not easily observed in a table. CLAX provides easily operated tools for the creation of graphs that plot data across time for subjects or groups. Graphs can be made quickly and are highly customizable for purposes of publication or export to other applications.

Graphs can be filtered and smoothed to highlight trends using either a Moving Average or Savitzky-Golay filter. These filters can be applied to assist with reducing short-term deviations that may mask a more meaningful pattern.

Exporting Data
Every CLAMS-HC measurement sample can be viewed and exported in a delimited format for use in other programs. Tabular data may be saved in TXT (tab or Semicolon separated) or CSV (comma separated value) formats. Graphs generated by CLAX can be printed or saved in a variety of standard image file formats: BMP, GIF & PNG. These may be easily imported by other program for preparing presentations.

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